The PBI’s Posts
It’s Here: Planetary Boundaries 2.0
The highly anticipated updated concept of planetary boundaries has now been released by an international team of researchers in the Journal Science (16 January 2015). The new assessments and quantifications place climate change and the newly-termed “biosphere integrity” as core planetary boundaries – both of which have been crossed.
Alarmingly, a total of four of the nine planetary boundaries have now been crossed due to anthropogenic causes. Crossing any of the boundaries increases the risks to current and future societies of destabilising the Earth System, potentially through sudden and catastrophic changes.
Anthropocene: Journey of a Concept
‘The Anthropocene’ is a concept that has become central to the planetary boundaries discourse. In summary, it raises the alarm that we are moving out of the favourable conditions of the Holocene into a new geological epoch created entirely by the activities of mankind: the Anthropocene. And it looks set to be an era that will not prove quite as supportive of humanity’s growth, development, or even continued existence.
Yet where did this geological concept come from? And how has this concept, to use Victor Anderson’s phrase, “travelled such a long way in such a short time”? The ‘Anthropocene’ makes some very big claims; not least that the (relatively recent) changes in the Earth System are as significant as those geological epochs that have defined the development of our planet, and that these planetary changes stem from the activities of our species.
In an exclusive preview for the PBI, Victor Anderson has made available his chapter that explores the development of the concept of the Anthropocene in geology, through the social sciences, and finally – and arguably most importantly – its implications and uses in political discourse. He examines the reluctance of geologists versus the enthusiasm of social scientists to recognise the validity of the concept, and the evolutionary context that has dovetailed with the plantetary boundaries framework. An economist by profession, Anderson further questions whether the Anthropocene has potential to be a unifying concept with economic and other frameworks for human society and development.
An essential read: Victor Anderson Anthropocene: Journey of a Concept.
Black Friday Fever: It’s not only ‘consumer behaviour’ that needs addressing
2014 saw the biggest ‘Black Friday’ in the UK so far, the pre-Thanksgiving retail discount day import from the US. The phenomenon started to filter in around 2003, with some maintaining scepticism about the American tradition; this year, however, it effectively became a requirement for all major (and many smaller) retailers.
And what a Friday it was. Stores were forced to close, police were called to break up the crowds (in at least 16 Tescos around the country), fights broke out between the discount shoppers and injuries ensued. This Guardian article gives examples of the lengths shoppers went to in their desperation to nab bargains: a shopper buying a Dyson without even wanting one; another buying two of everything, unaware of the price but confident that they were all bargains. A comment from Michael Moran today on Twitter notes how many of the discount TVs bought in the Black Friday fever are now up for sale on eBay and attracting no bids.
What system of governance would truly protect planetary resilience? Comments from the SRC MOOC
What has been particularly interesting is the flourishing online community that has formed for sharing ideas on the state of our planet alongside the course. A thread launched by Cliff Krolick particularly stood out:
“What governance system will truly protect planetary resilience?”
A contribution from Ranjay Singh, echoed by contributors from Mongolia and Syria, highlighted that it has often been observed that systems and norms developed by indigenous communities are more sustainable than formal systems of governance. This idea that we require good quality local governance and civil participation to build cooperative and resilient communities emerged repeatedly in the discussion; but it was also highlighted importantly that global level problems cannot be solved by local governance alone.
The implications of the ‘historic’ US-China deal
18th November 2014
Hot on the heels of the European Union’s pledge to cut total emissions to 40% below 1990 levels by 2030, the announcement on the 12th November of the climate agreement between China and the US – the world’s two largest emitters of greenhouse gases – has been welcomed as “a historic milestone” and “a watershed moment for climate politics”. The praise, however, has been reserved for the political message rather than the unambitious climate commitments.